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Glossary of Nutritional Terms

Amino Acids

A clause in a mortgage which allows the lender to demand payment of the outstanding loan balance for various reasons. The most common reasons for accelerating a loan are if the borrower defaults on the loan or transfers title to another individual without informing the lender.

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Examples include beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, selenium, and vitamins C and E. They are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. They are also available as dietary supplements. Most research has not shown antioxidant supplements to be helpful in preventing diseases.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Basal Body Temperature

Basal body temperature is your temperature at rest when you wake up in the morning. This temperature rises slightly around the time of ovulation. Keeping track of this temperature and other changes such as cervical mucus may help you figure out when you are ovulating. Take your temperature before you get out of bed every morning. Since the change during ovulation is only about 1/2 degree F (1/3 degree C), you should use a sensitive thermometer such as a basal body thermometer.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Blood Glucose

Glucose — also called blood sugar — is the main sugar found in the blood and the main source of energy for your body.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as your heart pumps blood. It includes two measurements. "Systolic" is your blood pressure when your heart beats while pumping blood. "Diastolic" is your blood pressure when the heart is at rest between beats. You usually see blood pressure numbers written with the systolic number above or before the diastolic number. For example, you might see 120/80.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Blood Type

There are four major blood types: A, B, O, and AB. The types are based on substances on the surface of the blood cells. Besides blood types, there is the Rh factor. It is a protein on red blood cells. Most people are Rh-positive; they have Rh factor. Rh-negative people don't have it. Rh factor is inherited though genes.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Body Mass Index

Body Mass Index (BMI) is an estimate of your body fat. It is calculated from your height and weight. It can tell you whether you are underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. It can help you gauge your risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Body Temperature

Body temperature is a measure of your body’s level of heat.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Calcium

Calcium is a mineral found in many foods. Almost all calcium is stored in bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, and to send messages through the nervous system. Calcium is also used to help release hormones and enzymes that affect almost every function in the human body.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Calories

A unit of energy in food. Carbohydrates, fats, protein, and alcohol in the foods and drinks we eat provide food energy or "calories."
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this sugar for energy for your cells, tissues and organs. It stores any extra sugar in your liver and muscles for when it is needed. There are two types of carbohydrates: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates include natural and added sugars. Complex carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables and legumes.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that’s found in all cells of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. However, cholesterol also is found in some of the foods you eat. High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart disease.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Daily Value (DV)

The Daily Value (DV) tells you what percentage of a nutrient one serving of that food or supplement provides compared to the recommended amount.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Dehydration

Dehydration is a condition that happens when you do not take in enough liquids to replace those that you lose. You can lose liquids through frequent urinating, sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. When you are dehydrated, your body does not have enough fluid and electrolytes to work properly.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Diet

Your diet is made up of what you eat and drink. There are many different types of diets, such as vegetarian diets, weight loss diets, and diets for people with certain health problems.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Dietary Supplements

A dietary supplement is a product you take to supplement your diet. It contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins; minerals; herbs or other botanicals; amino acids; and other substances). Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do for effectiveness and safety.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Digestion

Digestion is the process the body uses to break down food into nutrients. The body uses the nutrients for energy, growth, and cell repair.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are minerals in body fluids. They include sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride. When you are dehydrated, your body does not have enough fluid and electrolytes.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Enzymes

Enzymes are substances that speed up chemical reactions in the body.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Fatty Acid

Fatty acid is a major component of fats that is used by the body for energy and tissue development.
Source: National Cancer Institute

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The body stores fat-soluble vitamins in the liver and fatty tissues.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Fiber

Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Fiber makes you feel full faster, and stay full for a longer time. That can help you control your weight. It helps digestion and helps prevent constipation.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Folate

Folate is a B-vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. A form of folate called folic acid is used in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Our bodies need folate to make DNA and other genetic material. Folate is also needed for the body’s cells to divide. It is important for women to get enough folic acid before and during pregnancy. It can prevent major birth defects of the baby's brain or spine.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Gluten

Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It can also be in products such as vitamin and nutrient supplements, lip balms, and certain medicines.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Glycemic Index

The glycemic index (GI) measures how a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood sugar.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

HDL

HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is also known as “good” cholesterol. HDL is one of the two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol throughout your body. It carries the cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver removes the cholesterol from your body.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Heart Rate

Heart rate, or pulse, is how many times your heart beats in a period of time — usually a minute. The usual pulse for an adult is 60 to 100 beats per minute after resting for at least 10 minutes.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Height

Your height is the distance from the bottom of your feet to the top of your head when you are standing up straight.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Iodine

Iodine is a mineral found in some foods. Your body needs iodine to make thyroid hormones. These hormones control your body’s metabolism and other functions. They are also important for bone and brain development during pregnancy and infancy.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Iron

Iron is a mineral. It is also added to some food products and is available as a dietary supplement. Iron is a part of hemoglobin, a protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. It helps provide oxygen to muscles. Iron is important for cell growth, development, and normal body functions. Iron also helps the body make some hormones and connective tissue.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

LDL

LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is also known as “bad” cholesterol. LDL is one of the two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol throughout your body. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Magnesium

Magnesium is a mineral naturally present in many foods, and is added to other food products. It is also available as a dietary supplement and present in some medicines. It helps your body regulate muscle and nerve function, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure. It also helps your body make protein, bone, and DNA.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Metabolism

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Minerals

Minerals are those elements on the earth and in foods that our bodies need to develop and function normally. Those essential for health include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, chromium, copper, fluoride, molybdenum, manganese, and selenium.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Monounsaturated Fat

Monounsaturated fat is a type of fat is found in avocados, canola oil, nuts, olives and olive oil, and seeds. Eating food that has more monounsaturated fat (or "healthy fat") instead of saturated fat (like butter) may help lower cholesterol and reduce heart disease risk. However, monounsaturated fat has the same number of calories as other types of fat and may contribute to weight gain if you eat too much of it.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

Multivitamin/mineral supplements contain a combination of vitamins and minerals. They sometimes have other ingredients, such as herbs. They are also called multis, multiples, or simply vitamins. Multis help people get the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals when they cannot or do not get enough of these nutrients from food.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Niacin

Niacin is a nutrient in the vitamin B complex. The body needs it in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Niacin helps some enzymes work properly and helps the skin, nerves, and digestive tract stay healthy.
Source: National Cancer Institute

Nutrient

Nutrients are chemical compounds in food that are used by the body to function properly and maintain health. Examples include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Nutrition

This field of study focuses on foods and substances in foods that help animals (and plants) to grow and stay healthy. Nutrition science also includes behaviors and social factors related to food choices. The foods we eat provide energy (calories) and nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and water. Eating healthy foods in the right amounts gives your body energy to perform daily activities, helps you to maintain a healthy body weight, and can lower your risk for certain diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a mineral that helps keep your bones healthy. It also helps keep blood vessels and muscles working. Phosphorus is found naturally in foods rich in protein, such as meat, poultry, fish, nuts, beans, and dairy products. Phosphorus is also added to many processed foods.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Polyunsaturated Fat

Polyunsaturated fat is a type of fat that is liquid at room temperature. There are two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): omega-6 and omega-3. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in liquid vegetable oils, such as corn oil, safflower oil, and soybean oil. Omega-3 fatty acids come from plant sources—including canola oil, flaxseed, soybean oil, and walnuts—and from fish and shellfish.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Potassium

Potassium is a mineral that your cells, nerves, and muscles need to function properly. It helps your body regulate your blood pressure, heart rhythm and the water content in cells. It also helps with digestion. Most people get all the potassium they need from what they eat and drink. It is also available as a dietary supplement.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Protein

Protein is in every living cell in the body. Your body needs protein from the foods you eat to build and maintain bones, muscles, and skin. You get proteins in your diet from meat, dairy products, nuts, and certain grains and beans. Proteins from meat and other animal products are complete proteins. This means they supply all of the amino acids the body can't make on its own. Plant proteins are incomplete. You must combine different types of plant proteins to get all of the amino acids your body needs. You need to eat protein every day, because your body doesn't store it the way it stores fats or carbohydrates.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the amount of a nutrient you should get each day. There are different RDAs based on age, gender, and whether a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Respiratory Rate

Respiratory rate is your rate of breathing (inhalation and exhalation) within a certain time. It is usually stated as breaths per minute.
Source: National Cancer Institute

Saturated Fat

Saturated fat is a type of fat that is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found in full-fat dairy products (like butter, cheese, cream, regular ice cream, and whole milk), coconut oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, and the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, among other foods. Saturated fats have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Selenium

Selenium is a mineral that the body needs to stay healthy. It is important for reproduction, thyroid function, and DNA production. It also helps protect the body from damage caused by free radicals (unstable atoms or molecules that can damage cells) and infections. Selenium is present in many foods, and is sometimes added to other foods. It is also available as a dietary supplement.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Sodium

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function of nerves and muscles. It also helps to keep the right balance of fluids in your body.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Sugar

Sugars are a type of simple carbohydrate. They have a sweet taste. Sugars can be found naturally in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. They are also added to many foods and drinks during preparation or processing. Types of sugar include glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Your digestive system breaks down sugar into glucose. Your cells use the glucose for energy.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Total Fat

Fat is a type of nutrient. You need a certain amount of fat in your diet to stay healthy, but not too much. Fats give you energy and help your body absorb vitamins. Dietary fat also plays a major role in your cholesterol levels. Not all fats are the same. You should try to avoid saturated fats and trans fats.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Trans Fat

Trans fat is a type of fat that is created when liquid oils are changed into solid fats, like shortening and some margarines. It makes them last longer without going bad. It may also be found in crackers, cookies, and snack foods. Trans fat raises your LDL (bad) cholesterol and lowers your HDL (good) cholesterol.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Triglycerides

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat may raise the risk of coronary artery heart disease, especially in women.
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

UV Exposure

Ultraviolet (UV) rays are an invisible form of radiation from sunlight. They can help your body form vitamin D naturally. But they can pass through your skin and damage your skin cells, causing sunburn. UV rays can also cause eye problems, wrinkles, skin spots, and skin cancer.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Vitamins

Vitamins are substances that our bodies need to develop and function normally. They include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, choline, and the B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate/folic acid).
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays a role in your vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell functions, and immune system. Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant or animal sources. Plant sources include colorful fruits and vegetables. Animal sources include liver and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to foods like cereals.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is present in many foods and is added to other foods. The body needs vitamin B6 for many chemical reactions involved in metabolism. Vitamin B6 is involved in brain development during pregnancy and infancy. It also is involved in immune function.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 helps keep the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy. It helps make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. Vitamin B12 also helps prevent a type of anemia that makes people tired and weak. Vitamin B12 is found naturally in a wide variety of animal foods. It is also added to some fortified foods and is found in most multivitamin supplements.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include citrus, red and green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, and greens. Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. Vitamin D also has a role in your nerve, muscle, and immune systems. You can get vitamin D in three ways: through your skin (from sunlight), from your diet, and from supplements. Your body forms vitamin D naturally after exposure to sunlight. However, too much sun exposure can lead to skin aging and skin cancer, so many people try to get their vitamin D from other sources. Vitamin D-rich foods include egg yolks, saltwater fish, and liver. Some other foods, like milk and cereal, often have added vitamin D. You can also take vitamin D supplements. Check with your health care provider to see how much you should take.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in your immune system and metabolic processes. Most people get enough vitamin E from the foods they eat. Good sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils, margarine, nuts and seeds, and leafy greens. Vitamin E is added to foods like cereals. It is also available as a supplement.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Vitamin K

Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. There are different types of vitamin K. Most people get vitamin K from plants such as green vegetables and dark berries. Bacteria in your intestines also produce small amounts of another type of vitamin K.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Water Intake

We all need to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, activity level, and the weather where you live. Keeping track of your water intake helps make sure that you get enough. Your intake includes fluids that you drink, and fluids you get from food.
Source: NIH MedlinePlus

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C. The body does not easily store water-soluble vitamins and flushes out the extra in the urine.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Weight (Body Mass)

Your weight is the mass or quantity of your heavin

Zinc

Zinc, a mineral that people need to stay healthy, is found in cells throughout the body. It helps the immune system fight off invading bacteria and viruses. The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA, the genetic material in all cells. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood, the body needs zinc to grow and develop properly. Zinc also helps wounds heal and is important for our ability to taste and smell. Zinc is found in a wide variety of foods, and is found in most multivitamin/mineral supplements.
Source: National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplement

†These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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